This twin- seat version of the MIG 29 Fulcrum A was developed for advanced training programmes. Even though it was not completely equipped with the same electronic gear as the single- seat version; it was nevertheless able to operate due to its 30mm gun; and the possibility of using its air- to- air missiles R60 AA-8 APHID. The MIG 29 UB is normally used in groups of two to three units ih each squadron of single- seat planes. This system used by the Soviet Air Force was also followed by other forces which aquired the MIG 29: India; Syria; lrak; Poland; Tchechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic. The aircraft was introduced June 22; 1990.